Don’t worry, you won’t get busted for tax fraud or anything like that. Technically, the contributions in your HSA are still your money. But if, say, you run into a tough situation and need to use the funds for something other than qualified medical expenses, you will lose the tax advantage.
In that case, you owe the IRS money and will need to complete Form 8889. If you have “distributions” (i.e. you spent money from your HSA) for a tax year, you are required to submit Form 8889 with your federal income tax return. You can use the information from your 1099-SA and 5498-SA to complete this form.
The good news is that most tax-filing services automatically fill out this form for you based on the information in your 1099-SA, but it’s still a good idea to keep your receipts to any HSA expenses to prove that they are qualified.